I was thrown into cellar. Girls torn shirts and made tampons in order to put into nose. My nose was completely broken and held on skin. When they bit me, the first secretary came. I lay on the ground in blood. Blood ran from my nose. I knew everything: where rebels hided, who they were, where type-writers were. I thought: “Bit me, carve me, I will not say anything”. First secretary Kirsta was very decent person. He said: “When she recover, release her and then let she come to you every day from village for check. If she is not linked with rebels, nothing will happen. But when she is linked, they will kill her themselves because they will suspect her in betrayal. But if she is not guilty, leave her. How can you do this?”
“We had school director Zaklika. She taught us only polish history. I stood up once and said “We want to study Ukrainian history. Teach us at least Kings times. We are Ukrainians! We will not answer you anything more.” He closed a class, called to Volya to police post. Police came and took me. They hold me the whole day, the whole night and in the morning let me go. They wanted me to go home by myself from Volya-Vysotstka. I said: “I don’t know the way. You brought me here, you should take me home.” They brought me to school and said: “Go home.” And I said: “My legs pain and I want to eat”. I was such a child. Mother told father to go to Volya and to bring me home. Father answered: “Don’t worry, she has tongue. She knows how to speak. Don’t worry. She will not drown. And if she drowns, we will drown with her.” They brought me to school and I cried that parents would bit me. So they brought me to the house.”
“When first soviets came, they made meeting in 10 days and started deportations of rich peasants. They wanted to get rid of enemies of soviet power. They gathered meeting in reading-room. Poor peasants said: “Deport anybody you want except on Gryshchak (father of N-A. Liskevych – Auth.). We lived near him, he never refused us in milk, cheese, meet, fat etc. Everything which was needed he gave.” They were for my father. So mother with us was not deported, and father was imprisoned.
- Int.: Did first or second soviets make kolkhoz? –N.-A.: The first one made kolkhozes at once. - Int.: How did this look like? Did they take your land? – N.-A.: Mother said so: “I will write allegation to kolkhoz (father was already arrested). But I will work on my land. I will not go anywhere. We will give our bread to state, but leave us. We’ll do everything, how it should be, but don’t disturb us. We will not go to work on somebody’s land.”
- Int.: Did they agree? – N.-A.: Yes, they did. We worked on our field.”
“When my father came to Zamochok, there were no reading-room there. Do you understand? He decided to build a reading-room. Father asked dwellers: “Lets everybody give some money and we’ll build a little reading-room!” But there were no response about building this reading-room. My father made an agreement with one Ukrainian, true Ukrainian – surname Gadada, they were called Pasynky in village. They were three sons… Father talked with these Pasynky and they went to forest. Father told my mother (he didn’t tell the truth): “I am going” (it was then called “forshpan” – to export something). He made the long cart and went to the forest which was mother’s one. He cut down the best oaks… Mother went there to give meal for choppers (we had little hayfield there). She told father: “I’ll look at our oaks”. And then she returned: “Vasyl’, somebody cut all good oaks!” and started crying. But father said: “Why are you crying? Don’t cry! Oaks will grow up. For our children there will be oaks!”
“We had a chief Gershak – he was Jew. Everybody was afraid of him. He was a communist… At last independence of Ukraine was proclaimed. Guys were going to kitchen to receive food through long corridor. I was going behind them. And he was going with under-arm case to work. I shouted: “Yuriy Vadymovych! Glory to Ukraine!” At 4 p.m. aide came and said that chief was calling me. I came, knocked the door and heard: “Come in! Sit down. I want to inquire something”. I said: “Ask, please. I will answer truthfully”. – “I know that if you answer that’s for sure truthfully.” – “Yes, of course.” – “What nationality are you?” – “I am Ukrainian. My parents are Ukrainians. I am proud of my Nation.” He looked at me and said: “You words are of gold.” I said: “We are Ukrainians from blood and bones, from grandfather – great grandfather. So I can’t say that I am Russian or Jew (his father was Russian and mother – Jew)”. And he said: “I like such people, who respect their roots”. When he said this, my hair stood on end from happiness.”
To work from day to day in every house, in reading room, near machine. To be proud of the own language, clothes, songs. To be proud of the own Nation…
Nadiya-Anastasiya Liskevych was born on 20-th of April 1923 in village Turynka, hamlet Bilyj Lis, Zhovkva district, Lviv region. At the end of 20-th she moved with her family to village Zamochok, Lviv region. During 1930-1937 she has been studying in bilingual peasant primary school. During Nazi occupation she was stanychna* and liaison in underground OUN. Her pseudo was “Voloshka” (blue-bonnet). In 1946 on Christmas Eve she was arrested by soviet secret service. She was held in NKVD prison in Zhovkva till 15th of February 1946; afterwards she was released under conditions of every week appearance in NKVD office. After recovering Ms. Nadiya-Anastasiya returned to illegal status and continued to accomplish tasks of OUN. In autumn 1947 during realization of underground assignment she was caught by military counterespionage of soviet army and brought into dug-out house in Butynskyy forest in Lviv region but she managed to run away. In 1954 she married Roman Liskevych, legalized herself and made new documents. In 1965-1969 she worked on Lviv vine factory, in 1969 - “Kineskop” factory. During 1970-1993 she was working in canteen of Lviv regional psychiatric hospital. Now she lives in Lviv.
*stanychnyy (-m), stanychna (-f) - position in Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists - a civil person at some place (district, city, village) or territory, who provided connection between local population and OUN. Duty of this person was to collect food, medicine for rebels, to find places for rebels to live (e.g. in winter), to make counterespionage on one’s territory etc.